Flux. Together these exercises helped me to think through the logic of my ideas, what I had left out, and determine that my “theory” was not really a theory, but rather my collection of ideas about online learning best practices. Cognitive load theory (and by extension many of the multimedia instructional design principles) is based in part on a model of working memory by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch who proposed that working memory has two largely independent, limited capacity sub-components that tend to work in parallel – one visual and one verbal/acoustic. Numerous tools can help in the facilitation of these environments including drills, simulations and tutorials. of the Theory and Practice of Online Learning illustrate that leadership. “Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of … This reading selection will highlight a few alternative theories and models that are being used in the field of eLearning. computer-graded quizzes, simulation exercises and virtual labs, collaborative learning environments where students can assess their own growth and learning through virtual groups; student manages who help with the facilitation and help observe students' contributions and work. 17-20): The psychological theory of behaviorism is used as an educational theory when the learning experience is based on a stimulus and a response and by rewarding behavior that will meet the educational goal and ignoring (or correcting) behavior that is not goal directed. Based on Vygotsky's "social cognition", a community-centred online learning environment will provide a space for students to work collaboratively in creating new knowledge. Online learning can provide many forms of assessment by both the instructor and peers. Linear algebra (MATH51 or CS 205L), probability theory (STATS 116, MATH151, or CS 109), and machine learning (CS 229 or STATS 315A) Course Availability. The term is constantly changing. Three prevalent theories are described below (O’Neil et al., pp. • Access to the Internet can be a concern in less-developed nations. Toward a theory of online learning. We have learned a great deal about learning theories since the start of ETEC 512. in your opinion, do you believe that online learning provides a suitable environment for using these learning theories? While psychology describes how people act, educational theory describes how people learn (O’Neil et al., p. 17). The online learning environment provides a collaborative community where students can build relationships amongst peers while simultaneously constructing knowledge. MAY 2, 2017. The active learning process places responsibility on the learner and lends itself to a wider range of learning styles. Members of these communities will support and challenge one another in an effort to create and build knowledge. Watch this Youtube video for an explanation on the Semantic web. In the constructivist approach, instruction is inductive and from the bottom, up. Learning Theory and Online Technologies offers a powerful overview of the current state of online learning, the foundations of its historical roots and growth, and a framework for distinguishing between the major approaches to online learning. Rather than testing inert knowledge, educators should help students to learn to recognize and solve problems, comprehend new phenomena, construct mental models of those phenomena, and given a new situation, set goals and regulate their own learning (learn how to learn) (p. 2). In order for meaningful learning to occur according to Jonassen, Howland, Marra and Crismond (2008), the task that students pursue should engage active, constructive, intentional, authentic, and cooperative activities. It was because of this theory that teachers and trainers are applying social learning principles in the design, development, and implementation of online learning systems. A second strategy may be coupled with the first. Highly flexible compared to traditional campus-based learning. A well designed online learning community will provide for a social environment. In the online learning space, motivation is important because often people are taking a course by themselves. 1.3 Theories of Learning and the Online Environment, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health, Archer College of Health and Human Services, Archer College Request for Blackboard Exam Creation, 1.7 Online strategies and the Role of Online Teaching, 2.3 Education Law - Copyright and Fair Use, 2.5 Message and Media Components and Design, 3.1 Online Learning Tools: Asynchronous Communication Tools, 3.2 Online Learning Tools: Synchronous Communication Tools, 4.1 Student Engagement, Motivation and Classroom Strategies, 4.2 Facilitating Effective Online Discussions, 4.4 Acknowledging and Affirming Diversity, 5.1 Designing Effective Instructional Strategies, 5.3a Absorb Instructional Activities Presentations, 5.3b Do Instructional Activities Practice, 5.3c Do Instructional Activities Discovery, 5.3d Do Instructional Activities Games and Simulations, 5.3e Connect Instructional Activities Reflection, 5.3f Connect Instructional Activities Guided Research, 5.3g Connect Instructional Activities Problem Solving, 6.1 Student Learning Assessment and Course Evaluation Strategies, 6.4 Creating Rubrics to Evaluate Student Work. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.). A motivation theory that deserves thorough investigation in online learning contexts is Deci and Ryan, 1985, Deci and Ryan, 2002 self-determination theory (SDT), which was described by Pintrich and Schunk (2002) as “one of the most comprehensive and empirically supported theories of motivation available today” (p. 257). Please post your answer to the Vista discussion board. Access to the internet can be a concern in less-developed nations. Figure 1.1 Characteristics of Meaningful Learning are constructive, cooperative, authentic, intentional and active. Instead of focusing solely on observable behavior, Cognitive Theory seeks to explain how the mind works during the learning process. 19-20). Online Collaborative Learning Theory (Harasim) Summary: Online collaborative learning theory, or OCL, is a form of constructivist teaching that takes the form of instructor-led group learning online. After a review of learning theory as applied to online education, a proposal for an integrated Multimodal Model for Online Education is provided based on pedagogical purpose. Teachers and students can interact within these communities in both asynchronous and synchronous methods. Theories about learning are mostly derived from psychology. Cognitive load theory refers to the amount of mental effort involved in working memory, and these amounts are categorized into three categories: germane, intrinsic, and … The Internet and the Wide World Web changed it all and they are now the basis of modern online learning. Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication Shelly D. Farnham, Ph.D. However, online learning involves more than just the presentation and delivery of the materials using the Web: the learner and the learning process should be the focus of online learning. Saint&Paul&University&& & Reposted(with(permission(by(theauthor(! It can have a positive influence on decision-making skills and behavior. Online learning can be less flexible than thought even with the ability of asynchronous communication. For learning environments to be effective, they must be assessment centred. In OCL, students are encouraged to collaboratively solve problems through … The instructor is a model and a coach who encourages exploration of ideas in learner-centered and learner-generated environment. Online Learning Theory Lisa M Lane. Others have argued that online learning, with its asynchronous and synchronous communication can lead to "enhanced or hyper communication.". The teacher must be aware of students' understanding including prior knowledge, misconceptions. • Access to the Internet can be problematic for people with physical disabilities. The process is called successive approximations. As students gain experience as students, they become able to think about how they themselves learn best, and you (as the teacher) can encourage such self-reflection as one of your goals for their learning. This is the definition I will use in my webinar: Blended Learning: from theory to practice. The researchers started from an understanding of cognitive load theory to establish the set of principles that compose e-learning theory. Abstract. The illustration below focuses on two modes of online learning (Collaborative, community of inquiry models, and independent study model). highly compatible with constructivist learning theory as students can work towards a desired learning path. So, let’s look at what the research has found when looking at SDT and learning online. The learning environment must be cognizant of different cultural aspects including language. With this book Athabasca University, its faculty, and staff share their expertise, knowledge, and enthusiasm for the learning tools and techniques that promise to extend access, while retaining high quality learning opportunities. ", Online assessment can come in the form of. Learning Theories provide a framework for such learning solutions. Flexibility. For example, online learning would be a great tool to learn the theory-based side of football, like its history and the rules of the game. It was very helpful to share my theory of online learning with the group. What do you think some of the advantages and disadvantages are of learning online? In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds. The course schedule is displayed for planning purposes – courses can be modified, changed, or cancelled. As a result, the author defines online learning as 4 Theory and Practice of Online Learning 37. Some argue that online learning can limit an educators understanding of their students cultural perspectives and restrict communication. Learning Theories are conceptual frameworks that describe the manner in which the information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning. Connectivists realize knowledge is increasing at such fast speeds that it is important for learners to know how to find pertinent information. The traditional learning lab in which proper procedures are learned for a task is an example of behaviorist theory (p. 17). Create your own unique website with customizable templates. In online learning environments, teachers and learners interact with one another and the content provided. Numerous motivation theories focus on the amount of motivation, with a larger quantity said to result in the achievement of goals. Nudge theory centers on positive reinforcement and inferred suggestions to motivate a person to complete learning tasks. Figure 1.1 below is a representation of Jonassen’s characteristics of meaningful learning (Jonassen et al., p. 3). In general, from a theoretical perspective, online learning methodologies are founded based on theory and principles from three major theory communities: learning theory, op- … Access to a vast quantity of information. Tim S. Roberts, Online Collaborative Learning Theory and Practice If the student is to construct meaning from content, faculty, activities, and peers, then learning environments must be rich with strategies and resources (pp. Understanding e-learning technologies-in-practice through philosophies-in-practice. Highly accessible for most people living in the developed world and continually improving in less-developed nations. Large tasks are broken down into smaller tasks, and each task is learned in successive order. B Online Learning. Connectivism is a relatively new theory of learning or epistemology (there’s not even agreement about which it is), it is still being refined and developed, and it is currently highly controversial, with many critics. These changes allow you to transfer some of your responsibilities for arranging learning to the students themselves. Online learning environments with its high capacity for communication can provide assessment activities "that are project- and workplace-based, that are constructed collaboratively, that benefit from peer and expert review, and that are infused with opportunity and requirement for self-assessment. Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning Hafidzah Aziz. Reference. Incorporating a constructivist approach to designing and implementing online learning can provide the instructor and student with a variety of learning opportunities achieving the objective of  meaningful learning. Theoretical knowledge refers to facts, theories, and reasoning whereas practical knowledge is based on hands-on endeavors and tasks. Cognitive Learning Theory is largely based on the work of Jean Piaget, who rejected the idea that learners are passive and simply react to stimuli in the environment. Online learning is often theory-based and lacks practice-based learning. Anderson outlines six categories of educational interaction: The illustration below focuses on two modes of online learning (Collaborative, community of inquiry models, and independent study model). Often, the same content can be presented in different ways. Access to the internet can be problematic for people with physical disabilities. Less constraints compared to the traditional classroom including flexibility in participation, removal of distance problems. Learning theories such as connectivism are about making connections which the internet excels at. Course availability will be considered finalized on the first day of open enrollment. In online learning environments, teachers and learners interact with one another and the content provided. 17-20): Behaviorism – Behavior theorist focus on observable behaviors, thus discounting independent activities of … When used in corporate training, nudge theory compels learners to move beyond the boundaries of learning inside the flow of their work life. The way an online learning environment is designed is largely affected by the teacher’s philosophy of learning and understanding of educational learning theories. Online Learning and Self-Determination Theory. Constructivism engages learners in an active learning process. There is no single ‘solution’, but rather many ways to blend classroom teaching and online learning. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is an empirical theory of motivation developed by Edward Ryan and Richard Deci. Enjoy! Online teaching skills mini workshop cd123. David Kolb, an American education theorist proposed his four-stage experiential learning theory in 1984. Please post your answer to the Vista discussion board. ), Kanuka, H. (2008). Anderson, T. (2011). Online learning content is easily updateable and revisable. This article examines theoretical frameworks and models that focus on the pedagogical aspects of online education. Chen and Jang (2010) found that providing contextual support for autonomy and competence for students studying an online course positively affected the satisfaction of their psychological needs. Learning Theory and Online Technologies offers a powerful overview of the current state of online learning, the foundations of its historical roots and growth, and a framework for distinguishing between the major approaches to online learning. It is argued that online learner participation (1) is a complex process of taking part and maintaining relations with others, (2) is supported by physical and psychological tools, (3) is not synonymous with talking or writing, and (4) is supported by all kinds of engaging activities. Members of these communities feel a strong mutual sense of belonging to the community and thus, share a commitment to contributing and participating to the community of learning. BL is fascinating because the concept is based on being responsive to individual contexts. An understanding of educational theories can assist us in the design and implementation of an effective online learning environment. An understanding of educational theories can assist us in the design and implementation of an effective online learning environment. Which of these learning theories do you believe works best in an online learning environment and why? Before you start this section, we highly recommend that you complete the following readings: Anderson, T. (2008). As educators, it is important we reflect upon the nature of how people learn and consciously utilize educational theory as the foundation to construct meaningful learning experiences in our online classrooms. The internet provides learners with an enormous source of knowledge resources. Teachers and students can interact within these communities in both asynchronous and synchronous methods. Learning methods such as peer-to-peer learning are a manifestation of this principle, and it is known to be an effective social cognitive theory model in different learning environments. • Online learning can be less flexible than thought even with the ability of asynchronous communication. Siemens, Downes and Cormier constructed the first massive open online course (MOOC), Connectivism and Connective Knowledge 2011, partly to explain and partly to model a connectivist approach to learning. attributes of online instruction, the role of interaction, and a potential theory and model for online learning. It is built on the premise that learning is the acquisition of abstract concepts which can then be applied to a range of scenarios. Three prevalent theories are described below (O’Neil et al., pp. Top content on Learning Theory, Online Learning and Theory as selected by the eLearning Learning community. Although lectures may be well-written and well-delivered, they often pass from the ear to the hand leaving the mind untouched. As a result, the online educator must be cognizant of this and help direct their develop students' knowledge discovery skills. Equally helpful was to hear their theories. 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